Chanakya maxim

Chanakya Pandit,又名 Kakṭilya 或 Vishnu Gupta,是古老的 Takshashila 大學的導師。他活於公元前 320 年左右,在古印度文化中廣為人知,是一位哲學家,皇室顧問和經濟學家。

花的香氣只會隨著風吹的方向傳送,但一個人的善良品質卻能夠散發到四方。
The fragrance of flowers spreads only in the direction of the wind. But the goodness of a person spreads in all directions.

書籍對愚人的用途,猶如鏡子對盲人一樣。
Books are as useful to a stupid person as a mirror is useful to a blind person.
隱喻:盲人看不見到鏡內的東西 (自己);同樣,愚蠢的人也不能從書中看到甚麼。

友誼背後總有某些私利。沒有不從自身利益出發的友誼。這是一個痛苦的事實。
There is some self-interest behind every friendship. There is no friendship without self-interests. This is a bitter truth.

人渴望進昇至神聖大殿,必須要有純潔言語、心念、感官及一顆慈悲為懷的心腸。
Purity of speech, of the mind, of the senses, and of a compassionate heart are needed by one who desires to rise to the divine platform.
隱喻:要提升到神聖層面,便要成為仁者。

一個人的偉大是因他的行事,非因他的出生。
a man is great by deeds, not by birth.

在你開始工作之前,總是問自己三個問題 - 為什麼我這樣做,結果可能是什麼,我會成功嗎? 只有當你深思熟慮並找到滿意的答案時,才能繼續。
Before you start some work, always ask yourself three questions - Why am I doing it, What the results might be and Will I be successful. Only when you think deeply and find satisfactory answers to these questions, go ahead.

最初的五年,待你的孩子如寵兒。 接下來五年,責罵他們。 當他們十六歲時,把他們當作朋友對待。 你長大的孩子是你最好的朋友。
Treat your kid like a darling for the first five years. For the next five years, scold them. By the time they turn sixteen, treat them like a friend. Your grown up children are your best friends.

教育是最好的朋友。 受過良好教育的人到處受到尊重。 教育擊敗美麗與青春。
Education is the best friend. An educated person is respected everywhere. Education beats the beauty and the youth.

一旦你開始做某事,不要害怕失敗,不要放棄它。 真誠工作的人是最幸福的。
Once you start a working on something, don't be afraid of failure and don't abandon it. People who work sincerely are the happiest.

蛇、國王、老虎、刺人的黃蜂、小孩及他人的狗,與及笨蛋:這七位人不應該從睡夢中喚醒來。
The serpent, the king, the tiger, the stinging wasp, the small child, the dog owned by other people, and the fool: these seven ought not to be awakened from sleep.

沒有苦行比起一個平衡心意,沒有快樂比起自足; 沒有疾病比起貪婪,沒有美德比起憐憫。
There is no austerity equal to a balanced mind, and there is no happiness equal to contentment; there is no disease like covetousness, and no virtue like mercy.
平衡心是最高苦行、自足是最高快樂、貪婪是最大疾病、慈悲是最大美德。

如果一個人有良好性格,還需要什麼其他美德? 如果一個人有名望,其他裝飾又有何價值?
If one has a good disposition, what other virtue is needed? If a man has fame, what is the value of other ornamentation?

睿智的人! 財富只施給值得的人,莫施他人。 雲朵接收的海水總是甜的。
O wise man! Give your wealth only to the worthy and never to others. The water of the sea received by the clouds is always sweet.

局限於書本上知識的人,與及財富被他人佔有著的人,當有需要用到這些時,既不能夠使用其知識,也不能運用其財富。
One whose knowledge is confined to books and whose wealth is in the possession of others, can use neither his knowledge nor wealth when the need for them arises.

地球在真理之力支持下; 真理之力令太陽照耀、風吹動; 事實上所有事情都依賴於真理。
The earth is supported by the power of truth; it is the power of truth that makes the sun shine and the winds blow; indeed all things rest upon truth.

我們不應為過去煩惱,也不應對未來焦慮; 有洞察力的人只當下處事。
We should not fret for what is past, nor should we be anxious about the future; men of discernment deal only with the present moment.

時間成就了人,也摧毀了他們。
Time perfects men as well as destroys them.

不要透露你的做事想法,但可透過智慧議事會,堅守秘密,決心將之付諸行動,
Do not reveal what you have thought upon doing, but by wise council keep it secret being determined to carry it into execution

智者該像白鶴一樣克制感官,並在適當了解天時、地利及能力情形下,成就他的目的。
The wise man should restrain his senses like the crane and accomplish his purpose with due knowledge of his place, time and ability

不要讓渡過的每天,沒有學習一節經文、半節經文、或四分一節經文,甚至經文中一字,也不要讓渡過的每天沒有參予慈善活動、學習研究、和其他虔誠活動。
Let not a single day pass without your learning a verse, half a verse, or a fourth of it, or even one letter of it; nor without attending to charity, study and other pious activity.

對強者來說,有什麼是太沉重?對那些付出努力的人來說,哪一處地方是太遙遠?對有真正學習的人來說,哪個國家是陌生?對說話動聽的人來說,誰會對他有敵意?
What is too heavy for the strong and what place is too distant for thosewho put forth effort? What country is foreign to a man of true learning?Who can be inimical to one who speaks pleasingly?

婆羅門的力量在於他的學識,國王的力量在於他的軍隊,商賈的力量在於他的財富,而戌陀的力量在於他的服務態度。
A brahmana's strength is in his learning, a king's strength is in his army, a vaishya's strength is in his wealth and a shudra's strength is in his attitude of service.

在笨人不受尊重、糧儲存得很好,夫妻不吵架的地方,財富女神(拉克希米 )會不請自來。
Lakshmi, the Goddess of wealth, comes of Her own accord where foolsare not respected, grain is well stored up, and the husband and wife do not quarrel.

以下五事:壽命、工作種類、財富、學識和死亡時間,是當人在母胎時決定了的。
These five: the life-span, the type of work, wealth, learning and the time of one's death are determined while one is in the womb.

學問是通過實踐得以保存;家聲通過良行得以維持;受敬仰者因他優秀品質被供認;而憤怒是從眼中看到。
Learning is retained through putting into practice; family prestige is maintained through good behaviour; a respectable person is recognised by his excellent qualities; and anger is seen in the eyes.

懶惰會荒廢學業;錢財付託他人會招損失;農夫疏散播種會蒙受損益;軍隊會因失去指揮官而迷失方向。
Indolent application ruins study; money is lost when entrusted to others; a farmer who sows his seed sparsely is ruined; and an army is lost for want of a commander.

樂善好施終止貧困;正義行為終止苦難;謹慎言行終止無知;仔細觀察終止恐慌。
Charity puts an end to poverty; righteous conduct to misery; discretion to ignorance; and scrutiny to fear.

以順從平息一位強人,以抗衡平息一個惡人,以禮貌或武力平息一個與你能力相當的人。
Conciliate a strong man by submission, a wicked man by opposition, and the one whose power is equal to yours by politeness or force.

在錢銀上、求知上、進食上及營商上除掉害羞的人會變得快樂。
He who gives up shyness in monetary dealings, in acquiring knowledge, in eating and in business, becomes happy.

再三考慮以下幾點:正確的時間,正確的朋友,正確的地方,正確的收入方式,正確的消費方式,從中這些裡面,你取得你的力量。
Consider again and again the following: the right time, the right friends, the right place, the right means of income, the right ways of spending, and from whom you derive your power.

就如金塊可透過擦、切、燒和敲四種方式來測試,因此人該透過以下四種方法測試:他的棄捨(不依戀)、行為、品質和行動。
As gold is tested in four ways by rubbing, cutting, heating and beating, so a man should be tested by these four things: his renunciation, his conduct, his qualities and his actions. 5.2

雙手乾淨的人不喜歡任公職;一無所求的人不注重身體打扮;只受部分教育的人說話不會動聽;而坦誠說話的人不可能是騙子。
He whose hands are clean does not like to hold an office; he who desires nothing cares not for bodily decorations; he who is only partially educated cannot speak agreeably; and he who speaks out plainly cannot be a deceiver. 5.5

沒有疾病(如此具破壞性)如色慾、沒有敵人如迷戀、沒有火如憤怒、沒有快樂如靈性知識。
There is no disease (so destructive) as lust; no enemy like infatuation; no fire like wrath; and no happiness like spiritual knowledge. 5.12

沒有水如雨水、沒有力量如自身力量、沒有光如目光、沒有財富比糧食更珍貴。
There is no water like rainwater; no strength like one's own; no light like that of the eyes; and no wealth more dear than food grain. 5.17

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